Etags are part of http protocol and they are a mechanism for web cach validation.
In a simplified way:
- browser checks cache; if requested object is in cache and is fresh, skip to #9
- browser asks OS for server’s IP address
- OS makes a DNS lookup and replies the IP address to the browser
- browser opens a TCP connection to server (this step is much more complex with HTTPS)
- browser sends the HTTP request through TCP connection
- browser receives HTTP response and may close the TCP connection, or reuse it for another request
- browser checks if the response is a redirect (3xx result status codes), authorization request (401), error (4xx and 5xx), etc.; these are handled differently from normal responses (2xx)
- if cacheable, response is stored in cache
- browser decodes response (e.g. if it’s gzipped)
- browser determines what to do with response (e.g. is it a HTML page, is it an image, is it a sound clip?)
- browser renders response, or offers a download dialog for unrecognized types
You can get more information here.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet). When you are set up with direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is an alternative communications protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) used primarily for establishing low-latency and loss tolerating connections between applications on the Internet. Both UDP and TCP run on top of the Internet Protocol (IP) and are sometimes referred to as UDP/IP or TCP/IP. Both protocols send short packets of data, called datagrams.
SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer. It provides a secure connection between internet browsers and websites, allowing you to transmit private data online. Sites secured with SSL display a padlock in the browsers URL and possibly a green address bar if secured by an EV Certificate.